°G SG−1000
°L degrees Lintner (diastatic power; DP) °L = (°W-K + 16) ÷ 3.5
°W-K degrees Windisch-Kolbach (diastatic power; DP) °W-K = (°L × 3.5) – 16
70 °C viscosity viscosity of wort from a small analytic mash, made at 70 °C
ASBC American Society of Brewing Chemists
BOD biological oxygen demand
brl barrel (volume)
c. conc. mash coarse ground grist in a concentrated analytical mash
c.g. coarse grind
CIP cleaning in place
coag.N coagulable nitrogen
COD chemical oxygen demand
cP centipoise (unit of viscosity)
CWE cold water extract
d.b. dry basis
d.wt. dry weight
DE dextrose equivalent
DFP diisopropyl fluorophosphate
d.m. dry matter
DMS dimethyl sulphide
DMS-P dimethylsulphide precursor (SMM)
DMSO dimethylsulphoxide
DP diastatic power
DU dextrinizing units (α-amylase)
EBC European Brewery Convention
EBC unit unit of color
EDTA ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid
F(app.%) apparent percentage of fermentability (attenuation)
F(real, %) real percentage fermentability
f.-c. extract difference difference in hot water extract yields obtained with finely and coarsely ground samples of malt
f.g. fine-grind
f.wt. fresh weight
FAN free amino nitrogen
FE fermentable extract
formol N nitrogen fraction reacting with formaldehyde
GC germinative capacity
GE germinative energy
GKVs germination and kilning vessels
GLC-FID gas-liquid chromatography using a flame ionization detector
GLC-TEA gas-liquid chromatography using a thermal energy analyser
h h
hl hectolitre
HMF hydroxymethylfurfural
HMW-N high-molecular-weight nitrogen
HPLC high performance liquid chromatography
HWE hot water extract
IoB Institute of Brewing
KI Kolbach Index
lb pounds weight or brewers’ pound of extract
LOX lipoxygenase
m.c. moisture content
m/m mass/mass
MAFF Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
MC measurable cyanide
min minute(s)
ML malting loss
mPa/s millipascal/s (units of viscosity)
MRL maximum residue limit
MY malt yield
N nitrogen
NDMA N-nitroso-dimethylamine
NIAB National Institute of Agricultural Botany
NIR near infrared spectroscopy
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
NPN non-protein nitrogen
OG original gravity (water = 1000)
p.p.b. parts per billion
p.p.m parts per million (usually mg/l or mg/kg)
PG persent gravity (water = 1000)
PSN permanently soluble nitrogen
PSY predicted spirit (alcohol, ethanol) yield
PV permanganate values for COD
PVPP polyvinylpolypyrrolidone
Qr quarter (various values)
QV water-absorbing powder (das Quellvermögen)
r(95) repeatability value
R(95) reproducability value
RH relative humidity
RQ respiratory quotient
s second(s)
SASPL saturated ammonium sulphate precipitation limit
SG specific gravity (water = 1000)
SGKVs steeping, germination and kilning vessels
SGVs steeping and germination vessels
SMM S-methylmethionine
SNR soluble nitrogen ratio
SOD superoxide dismutase
t tonne (1000 kg)
TCW thousand corn weight
TN total nitrogen
TSN total soluble nitrogen
v/v volume/volume
WS water sensitivity


Briggs, Dennis. Malts and Malting. London: Blackie Academic & Professional, 1998.

Strong, Gordon. “Mastering Malt: Selecting the Best Base for Your Beer.” Zymurgy May/June 2011: 18–23. Print.