Gordon, Dan. “Lager Brewing the German Way.” Zymurgy Nov.-Dec. 2011: 32–37. Print.
Homebrewers have several aeration/oxygenation methods available to them: siphon sprays, whipping, splashing, shaking, pumping air through a stone with an aquarium pump, and injecting pure oxygen through a sintered stone. We have tested all of these methods using a dissolved oxygen meter and have found that, when using air, 8 ppm of oxygen in solution is the best that you can achieve. Injecting oxygen through a stone will allow much higher dissolved oxygen levels. The chart below shows methods tested and the results.
|Siphon Spray||4 ppm||0 sec.|
|Splashing & Shaking||8 ppm||40 sec.|
|Aquarium Pump w/ stone||8 ppm||5 min|
|Pure Oxygen w/ stone||0-26ppm||60 sec (12ppm)|
It was concluded that pumping compressed air through a stone is not an efficient way to provide adequate levels of DO. Traditional splashing and shaking, although laborious, is fairly efficient at dissolving up to 8 ppm oxygen. To increase levels of oxygen, the carboy headspace can be purged with pure oxygen prior to shaking. The easiest and most effective method remains injecting pure oxygen through a scintered stone.
Wyeast Laboratories, Inc. “Oxygenation.” Wyeastlab.com. Wyeast Laboratories, Inc., 13 Dec. 2007. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://www.wyeastlab.com/hb_oxygenation.cfm>.